This fascinating concept could help us better understand why belief in God is so widespread

first_imgShare LinkedIn Share on Twitter Psychology research published in the journal Religion, Brain & Behavior provides new clues as to why some individuals believe in a god while others do not.The two-part study of 316 Americans found that religious “credibility-enhancing displays” (CREDs) were positively linked to the belief in God and religiosity.In the study, the survey assessing “credibility-enhancing displays” included questions such as: “To what extent did your caregiver(s) act fairly to others because their religion taught them so?”, “To what extent did your caregiver(s) live a religiously pure life?” and “To what extent did your caregiver(s) avoid harming others because their religion taught them so?” Emailcenter_img Pinterest Individuals who were exposed to more of these religious CREDs tended to have a higher certainty in the existence of God. Conversely, those exposed less religious CREDs tended to have a higher certainty in the non-existence of God.PsyPost interviewed the study’s corresponding author, Dr. Jonathan Lanman of Queen’s University Belfast. Read his explanation of the research below:PsyPost: Why were you interested in this topic?Lanman: I became interested in explaining who becomes a theist and who becomes a non-theist in 2007 when I noticed a rather odd juxtaposition. On the one hand, the previous decade had seen the rapid development of the cognitive science of religion, a field aiming to explain the existence and persistence of religious belief via cognitive universals.  On the other hand, that same decade had seen a surge in both popular atheist publications (such as Sam Harris’s The End of Faith and Richard Dawkins’s The God Delusion) and the memberships of atheist and humanist groups around the world.If everyone had the universal cognitive mechanisms that drive religious belief, then why would we be seeing such a growth in atheism? I could only suspect that while cognitive universals make religious beliefs possible, they do not deterministically determine beliefs in all individuals and that other factors are necessary to explain who ends up a theist and who doesn’t.I also wasn’t satisfied with the most well-supported theory on offer, the existential security hypothesis, which holds that nations with high levels of personal and social security produce many more nontheists.  The sociological connection seemed correct to me but the psychological assumption that a need for comfort in the face of insecurity explains religious belief struck me as implausible.  Religious ideas in highly insecure places are often far from comforting (think witchcraft beliefs and angry forest spirits).   Meanwhile, it’s in the affluent West where we’ve transitioned to such comforting ideas as New Age fulfillment and hell-less Christianity.  Also, while there’s a lot of evidence for motivated reasoning in psychology, there’s little evidence to suggest that we move from a state of unbelief in some entity to a state of belief simply because it would be comforting if that entity existed.Existential security mattered, I thought, but had to be connected to theism and nontheism in some other way.  I thought that I found that other way when I came across Joe Henrich’s notion of Credibility Enhancing Displays and their role in affecting our beliefs.  If the CREDs hypothesis is correct, then we no longer need the assumption about people the world over coming to believe in supernatural agents because of a need for comfort.  Instead, we can recognize the abundant evidence suggesting that feelings of threat and insecurity increase our commitments to social groups (including religions) and our actions demonstrating such commitments.  In other words, feeling threatened and insecure increases the number and intensity of the religious CREDs people perform, which, in turn, allows for the successful transmission of religious beliefs to new generations.  High levels of existential security mean lower levels of CRED performance and, so I hypothesized, increased secularization.In short, I became interested in CREDs because I saw them as potentially being a crucial causal element in explaining differing rates of secularization around the world.What should the average person take away from your study?I think this is one of those studies where a great many people will say that the conclusion is obvious. We have such sayings as ‘practice what you preach,’ ‘walking the walk,’ and ‘actions speak louder than words’ for good reasons.  I think most people get the idea that matching your words with your actions will make you more persuasive.   This study provides firmer quantitative evidence that this is indeed the case for theistic belief in the United States.What might be new is just how important those actions are in comparison to words.  In our studies, when we put both our measure of general religious socialization (the talking the talk) and our measure of CREDs (the walking the walk) into regression models, the CREDs measure held all of the predictive power.  Actions matter more than words, but the evidence here suggests they matter dramatically more in convincing cultural learners of the existence of God.Are there any major caveats? What questions still need to be addressed?This study was only done in the United States, so we don’t know how widespread the CREDs effect is.  Recently though, Aiyana Willard and Lubomír Cingl have replicated the CREDs effect in Slovakia and the Czech Republic and Hugh Turpin has replicated it in the Republic of Ireland.  That’s still only a small sample of cultural environments, however.Another major caveat is that our studies relied on retrospective self-reports about the actions of one’s parents during one’s upbringing. Such retrospective reports can be affected by a number of other things. To really be justified in making causal claims about CREDs, we’ll need more experimental research.  Initial experiments on CREDs are promising, but we have a ways to go.Is there anything else you would like to add?The claim that exposure to CREDs is a major determining factor of who ends up a theist and who ends up a nontheist is a probabilistic claim, not a deterministic one.  Some people will get exposed to high levels of CREDs and reject theism while others will get minimal exposure and embrace it.   Further, there are certainly other factors that influence who ends up a theist and who doesn’t besides CREDs exposure, such as differences in particular cognitive biases and moral evaluations of specific religious traditions.The study, “Religious actions speak louder than words: exposure to credibility-enhancing displays predicts theism“, was also co-authored by Michael D. Buhrmester. 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Snyder: Ashley Pond – Importance Of A Small Body Of Water

first_imgLos Alamos Ranch School boys circle Ashley Pond as they leave for a pack trip in the Jemez Mountains. Courtesy/Los Alamos Historical Society ArchiveBy SHARON SNYDERLos Alamos Historical SocietyWhen Peggy Pond Church first saw the site where her father would one day open a school for boys, she was 12 years old. She remembered it in later years as “not much more than a homesteader’s farmhouse, a few sheds, and a muddy puddle of water.”That mud puddle would one day become a centerpiece for Los Alamos. What were the events in the life of Ashley Pond, the small body of water?The first mention of the shallow depression that would become Ashley Pond dates to the homesteading era, which began on the Pajarito Plateau in the 1880s. Water was scarce for the homesteaders, who learned dryland farming techniques. They depended on rain water and snowmelt and often hauled water from sources miles away. When rains came, the depression would collect water, and homesteaders nearby would bring their livestock to the temporary pond, a depression that became known as the Stock Watering Tank.In 1917, Ashley Pond Jr. established his Los Alamos Ranch School and eventually bought the homestead lands that surrounded the Watering Tank. As the school grew in enrollment, so did the need for a more adequate supply of water. The solution was to build a small dam in Los Alamos Canyon to create a reservoir. A 6-inch pipe brought water from the reservoir to the school to be stored in a wooden water tank near the Big House.With the more reliable supply of water, Ranch School Director A.J. Connell had another plan for the Watering Tank, by then known as the Duck Pond. The ranch school had built a reputation for outdoor activities as well as its curriculum. Enlarging the pond would increase the possibilities for outdoor pursuits such as fishing, canoeing, swimming, and, in the winter, ice skating. Connell acquired the pond and several acres of land around it and eventually sold it to the school. The pond was dredged to make it deeper, and the water level was maintained by piping surplus water from the school’s water supply. In addition to the new activities for the boys, some of the water in the pond could be piped to the school’s lower fields for irrigation of crops. The reservoir and pond projects were turning points in the school’s history and success.The name Duck Pond must have seemed too common for one of the faculty members at the school. Master William Mills, known for his love of puns, offered up the name Ashley Pond in honor of the school’s founder. Of course, that would have created the tongue tangler Ashley Pond Pond, but someone with better sense discouraged the use of the second “Pond” and the shortened name became a popular choice.In early 1943, when the school was taken over for the Manhattan Project, the pond took on a new role. The Technical Area, known as TA 1, was built around the south side of Ashley Pond. The water was a safeguard in case of fire in the wooden buildings that comprised much of the wartime laboratory.Another connection to the pond was the stone ice house, built on the south side of the pond by the ranch school to store blocks of ice cut from the pond. In 1945, the ice house was used for assembling the nuclear components of the Trinity device.In recent years, the pond was once again dredged and improvements made, including new walkways, landscaping, and a covered concert stage. The pond has been a significant part of our history for more than a century, so the next time you’re strolling around Ashley Pond to admire baby ducks or turtles basking in the sun or the lovely flowers in the surrounding park, remember that you’re experiencing history! Ranch School masters and boys construct the dam in Los Alamos Canyon that created a reservoir to supply water to the school. Courtesy/Los Alamos Historical Society Archivelast_img read more

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No sign of turbulence

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IXS Coatings Appoints Barry McConway As President

first_imgDeMoulpied comes to LSI from the Private Client Services practice of Ernst & Young where he managed strategy & operations improvement engagements for privately held client businesses. Some of his prior roles include VP of strategic development, director of strategic initiatives, and Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt at OptumHealth, UnitedHealth Group’s health services business, as well as Lean Six Sigma Black Belt at General Electric, where he applied operations improvement principles to customer service, supply chain and product development. A successful entrepreneur, deMoulpied is also the founder of PrestoFresh, a Cleveland-based e-commerce food/grocery business.  McConway has 30 years of experience in the automotive industry in various critical roles with Toyota Motor Sales USA, Toyota Financial Services, Gulf States Financial Services and Sky Alland Marketing. While serving as vice president marketing and product development for Gulf States Financial Services, he was responsible for the total rebranding of the organization and launch of new products.,Lubrication Specialties Inc. (LSI), manufacturer of Hot Shot’s Secret brand of performance additives and oils, recently announced the expansion of senior leadership. Steve deMoulpied joins LSI as the company’s chief operating officer (COO). AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisement Prior to assuming the role of president, McConway served as the executive vice president of IXS Coatings and Ultimate Linings LTD, where he provided strategic direction of corporate finances, human resource policy and procedures and strategic business planning. He also helped Ultimate Linings diversify its market penetration beyond automotive into key industrial and manufacturing application initiatives including gas and oil industries, construction, and erosion and abrasion protection industries.   With more than 20 years of experience across multiple industries and functional areas, deMoulpied has particular expertise in organizations with complex technical products. Combined, his prior positions have required a spectrum of skills in corporate strategy, operations improvement, product quality, and revenue cycle management. He has an impressive history of utilizing data driven problem solving (Lean Six Sigma) and project management (PMP and CSM) to achieve strategic goals surrounding customer satisfaction, operational efficiency and improved profit.  “It is an honor to be named president of IXS Coatings. I am energized by the opportunity to bring new leadership to the company and continue providing world class support to our global network of coatings applicators,” said McConway. “This is an extraordinary time for the company, and I look forward to building the next phase of IXS Coatings.”center_img IXS Coatings, global leader in high-performance, proprietary protective coatings for automotive, manufacturing and industrial operations, has announced Barry McConway as its new president. As president of IXS Coatings, McConway is responsible for the global leadership and the strategic direction for the company’s executive management team and the operational strategies for the brands within its portfolio. He also is in charge of directing IXS Coating’s short- and long-term goals, operational and sales strategies, corporate finances, human resources, and developing business at a manufacturing, industrial and retail level.AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisement DeMoulpied has a Bachelor of Science degree in Engineering Management from the United States Air Force Academy and a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Dayton in Marketing and International Business. He served six years with the USAF overseeing the development of technology used on fighter aircraft and the E-3 Surveillance aircraft, finishing his career honorably as Captain. LSI President Brett Tennar says, “Steve’s success in developing operational strategies that improves the bottom line, builds teamwork, reduces waste and ensures quality product development and distribution checks many of the boxes of what we were looking for in a COO. This, coupled with his career in the Air Force working with highly technical systems and his in-depth understanding of Lean Six Sigma and Business Process Management sealed our offer. As our tagline states, our products are Powered by Science. This data driven approach is one reason why our company has grown exponentially as we employ the most advanced technology to product development. I am confident that Steve is the right person to drive operational strategy for our diverse and growing brands.” Advertisementlast_img read more

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Digital mortgages to go live this year

first_imgPaperless mortgage deeds could become a reality this year, HM Land Registry has revealed. In its 2016/17 annual report, published today, the registry says the ’digital mortgage service’ which has been in private testing since last June will be opened up to a public ‘beta test’ in 2017. The system allows borrowers to sign deeds electronically with the government’s ’Verify’ online authentication process. Digital mortgages are among a new breed of services offered in a ‘digital transformation’, the report claims. It is the first report to be published since the government ended years of speculation over the registry’s future last November by announcing that it would remain in the public sector. Introducing the report, Michael Mire, chair, says a fully digitised service will make the registry’s role in developing, buying and selling land and property, and collateralising mortgages and loans ’almost totally frictionless’. The register ’will become increasingly digital, 3D, comprehensive and significantly richer in data’, the report states. This will aid data sharing across government ’for the purposes of supporting development, financial stability, tax collection, law enforcement and the protection of national security’, Graham Farrant, chief executive and chief land registrar, writes. He notes that the shelving of privatisation ’was not an endorsement of the status quo. Rather, it gave us fresh impetus to modernise and develop our digital and data services and location intelligence to support the property market and the economy.’Among the achievements claimed for the past year are:Improvements to the application enquiry service which enables solicitors and conveyancers to see the progress on specific cases online.‘Good feedback’ from borrowers piloting digital mortgages. ’The service is still
 in private beta but we intend to
 open it up to more users in 2017,’ John Abbott, director of digital, data and technology, writes: ‘The first truly digital
 mortgage can be created,
 signed and registered without
 the need for any paperwork 
or emailing and without the need for our colleagues to be involved in the process.’A ’Digital Street’ pilot will explore the use of new technologies such as blockchain distributed ledgers and artificial intelligence.On the controversial plan to centralise local land charges, the registry states that ’we continue to plan for major investment’. Moving the register from 326 English local authorities to a central database will ’drive at least £88m of benefit to the national economy by 2026/27’, it claims, cutting turnaround times from an average of eight days to instant online access. The registry plans to have the service running for 50% of local authorities by the end of 2020. 
The report makes no mention of the Conservative Party manifesto proposal to combine Land Registry’s database with those of Ordnance Survey and the Valuation Office Agency to create a cadastral data system, suggesting that the government has shelved the idea.National property law conference: overcoming challenges in a volatile landscape (11 October 2017, London)The closing panel session of the National property law conference will focus on the technical aspects of cyber crime and the challenges facing conveyancers for the next 12 months. Issues that will be covered include registered title fraud, GDPR and its impact, new developments such as digital mortgages and e-signatures and the future of cyber security including blockchain and land registers. Click here to find out more or to register for the conference.last_img read more

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Brexit won’t scupper City’s supremacy, say arbitrators

first_imgPaul FriedlandWhite & Case partner Paul Friedland.Paul Friedland, White & Case partner and head of international arbitration, said: ‘The 2015 survey predicted the dominance of the top seats was unlikely to be challenged. This has proven to be the case.’Although international arbitration is by far the preferred method of resolving cross-border disputes some of the drawbacks cited included the high costs and lack of speed.The rise in popularity of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) was also highlighted in the report. Almost half of all respondents expressed their preference for arbitration combined with ADR as opposed to only 34% in 2015. London is still the most popular spot for international arbitration for cross border disputes, a survey has found, placing higher than other hubs including Singapore and Paris.The 2018 International Arbitration Survey, published today by Queen Mary University of London and global firm White & Case, showed London was ranked top by more than 900 arbitrators, in-house and external counsel.According to the survey, 55% of respondents also predicted London’s appeal would remain unchanged after Brexit, while 9% thought it would lead to a further rise in popularity.As an overall destination, London was favoured by 64% of respondents and has increased its lead on Paris since the last study was conducted in 2015. The next most favoured locations were Singapore, Hong Kong and Geneva respectively.Among the 37% of respondants who believe London’s dominance will suffer from Brexit, 70% identified Paris as the main beneficiary, while 22% said Singapore or Geneva would hoover up business that would have gone to London. 15% cited Hong Kong as the main beneficiary.Stavros Brekoulakis, professor at Queen Mary’s school of international arbitration, said: ‘Most of the arbitration community believes London’s reputation as a location of excellence for international arbitration will outweigh the challenges presented by Brexit.’He added: ‘It is interesting to see Paris is almost 50% ahead of any other city when looking at the main would-be benefactor of any negative Brexit fall out. This is no doubt due to Paris’ excellent reputation as a seat – consistently ranking among the top three most popular seats in both the current survey and our previous 2010 and 2015 surveys.’last_img read more

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Video: Ohio State Shows Behind the Scenes Footage of Their Players at the 2016 NFL Draft

first_img Matt Loede has been a part of the Cleveland Sports Media for over 21 years, with experience covering Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, the National Football League and even high school and college events. He has been a part of the Cleveland Indians coverage since the opening of Jacobs/Progressive Field in 1994, and spent two and a half years covering the team for 92.3 The Fan, and covers them daily for Associated Press Radio. You can follow Matt on Twitter HERE. It was a huge weekend for the Buckeyes in the 2016 NFL Draft, as overall Ohio State had 12 players picked, with five of them coming in the first round.In what is a really cool look behind the scenes, the Buckeyes have put out a video of the events for certain Ohio State players over the weekend, and just how all the fun went down at the draft in Chicago. Related TopicsBuckeyesNFL DraftOhio Statecenter_img Matt Loedelast_img read more

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Panas! Trump Larang Maskapai Cina ke AS Mulai 16 Juni, Begini Kronologinya

first_imgUnited Airlines Presiden Amerika Donald Trump resmi melarang maskapai Cina masuk ke Amerika Serikat (AS) mulai 16 Juni mendatang. Bila perang dagang antara AS-Cina pada umumnya dimulai lebih dahulu oleh AS, kali ini kronologinya berbeda. Larangan maskapai Cina masuk AS disebut sebagai langkah balasan dari larangan serupa yang dialami oleh dua maskapai AS oleh Cina.Baca juga: JetBlue Jadi Maskapai Besar AS Pertama yang Wajibkan Penumpang Pakai Masker“Departemen Transportasi Amerika Serikat menanggapi lambannya Pemerintah Republik Rakyat Tiongkok (Cina) untuk mengizinkan maskapai penerbangan AS dalam melaksanakan sepenuhnya hak bilateral mereka, yakni melakukan layanan penerbangan berjadwal dari dan ke Cina,” kata Kementerian Perhubungan (Kemenhub) AS, dalam sebuah pernyataan, seperti dikutip dari Simple Flying. “(AS) menangguhkan operasional penumpang berjadwal dari semua maskapai penerbangan Cina dari dan ke Amerika Serikat. Kebijakan ini akan berlaku efektif mulai tanggal 16 Juni 2020,” tambah, bunyi keterangan dalam pernyataan tersebut.Dengan kebijakan tersebut, praktis, empat maskapai Cina, yang notabene mempunyai rute berjadwal ke AS akan terdampak, mulai dari Air China, China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, dan Xiamen Airlines.Air China saat ini mengoperasikan rute segitiga yang membentang dari Beijing-Los Angeles-Tianjin-Beijing. Rute ini hanya beroperasi seminggu sekali. Demikian juga dengan China Eastern Airlines di rute Shanghai-New York (JFK), China Southern rute Guanzhou-Los Angeles dengan Airbus A380nya, dan Xiamen Airlines di rute Xiamen (XMN)-Los Angeles yang kesemuanya memiliki penerbangan berjadwal sebanyak sepekan sekali.Tak hanya itu, dua maskapai Cina lainnya yang tengah mengajukan penerbangan berjadwal ke Kemenhub AS otomatis juga gagal terbang. Dua maskapai tersebut, Hainan Airlines dan Sichuan Airlines, diketahui akan mulai membuka penerbangan, masing-masing dari dan ke Hainan-Boston dan Hainan-Seattle serta rute Sichuan-Los Angeles mulai 1 Juli mendatang.Baca juga: China Eastern Klaim Jadi Maskapai Terbesar di DuniaKronologi kebijakan larangan terbang yang diberlakukan AS untuk maskapai Cina sebetulnya masih belum begitu jelas. Namun, diketahui, sejak 22 Mei lalu, pemerintah AS memang telah mulai mewajibkan empat maskapai penerbangan asal Cina (Air China, China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, dan Xiamen Airlines) untuk mengajukan jadwal penerbangan ke Kemenhub AS. Langkah itu dilakukan sebagai balasan atas upaya Cina menghalangi masuknya dua maskapai AS, United Airlines dan Delta Air Lines. Namun, belum jelas sejak kapan dua maskapai besar AS itu mulai dipersulit masuk ke Cina.Dengan diberlakukannya larangan terhadap maskapai Cina dan AS, pengamat penerbangan global memang masih menghitung siapa yang paling dirugikan atas kebijakan tersebut. Namun, yang pasti, dengan masih maraknya wabah corona di AS dan sudah mulai menurunnya wabah corona di Cina, besar kemungkinan, maskapai AS akan lebih dirugikan. Selain itu, dalam upaya recovery, pekan lalu, diketahui frekuensi penerbangan penumpang maskapai Cina melebih jumlah penerbangan penumpang maskapai AS.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Like this:Like Loading… RelatedChina Eastern Klaim Jadi Maskapai Terbesar di Dunia11/05/2020In “Featured”Masuk AS Bakal Tambah ‘Berat,’ Lima Maskapai Diminta Wawancarai Calon Penumpang27/10/2017In “Bandara”Buntut “Grounded Berjamaah,” Tiga Maskapai Cina Getok Boeing dengan Minta Kompensasi24/05/2019In “Featured”last_img read more

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Coghill Decries ‘Broken Promises’ of Alaskan Land Management

first_imgCoghill and Governor Bill Walker yesterday spoke to the U.S. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, chaired by Senator Lisa Murkowski, about the way the federal government is managing Alaskan lands. FacebookTwitterEmailPrintFriendly分享North Pole State Senator John Coghill accused the federal government of ignoring promises made to Alaska when the 1980 Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act was passed. Coghill suggested that reestablishing the Alaska Land Use Council, a federal body which discussed land management decisions but has not been in operation since the 1990’s.center_img Sen. Coghill(R-North Pole): “What’s happened here is the erosion of our promises given to us at statehood and the ensuing documents and ANILCA being this now 35-year-old document. It’s been disrespectful to the people, but it’s been disrespectful to the law as well.”last_img read more

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